Crepet, W. L., K. C. Nixon, and M. A. Gandolfo. 2005. An extinct calycanthoid taxon, Jerseyanthus calycanthoides, from the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey. American Journal of Botany 92 (9): 1475-1485.

Abstract: A new fossil genus and species, Jerseyanthus calycanthoides, is described from the Late Cretaceous (Turonian, ~90 MYBP) Raritan Formation of New Jersey. Flowers have cupulate receptacles bearing imbricately arranged tepals that subtend a series of recurved tepals near the cup margin. Recurved tepal subtends a ‘‘stamen-staminode’’ pair, that includes a laminar stamen with ramified connective extensions, and an outer staminode. Outer staminodes are geniculate and incurved, and in aggregate their inner extremities define a circular area above the carpels and carpellodes. Each ‘‘stamen-staminode’’ pair apparently subtends (is opposite to) an inner tepal. Pollen is rounded and disulculate, with tectate columellate wall structure. Carpels are located at the center of the receptacle and have elongate styles that extend to and beyond the opening defined by the staminodal organs. Carpels are surrounded by tomentose carpellodes. Carpels include one marginally ridged seed. While these fossils do not match exactly any living species in morphology, they share numerous characters with extant members of Calycanthaceae and can be unequivocally placed within that family. Affinities of Jerseyanthus and Virginianthus were evaluated by including them in a combined analysis for the Laurales. Jerseyanthus is placed within Calycanthaceae as a sister taxon to the modern genus Calycanthus.


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Jerseyanthus calycanthoides
Actual width in ( ) unless otherwise noted.

Top view of flower
(2.6 mm)
Side view of flower
(height= 2.4 mm)
(height= 480 µm)

Carpel with seed
(height= 480 µm)
Stamen with connective extensions
(550 µm)
Pollen grains
(length= 30 µm)