Gandolfo, M. A., K. C. Nixon, and W. L. Crepet. 2001. Turonian Pinaceae of the Raritan Formation, New Jersey. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 226: 187-203.

Abstract: Fossil vegetative and reproductive structures from deposits of the Raritan Formation in New Jersey (Turonian, Upper Cretaceous, ~90 MYBP) include ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Gymnosperms collected from this formation have been known since the beginning of the 20th century. Fossil leaves, wood and seed cones are identified as belonging to the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, and Taxodiaceae. In the present contribution, we describe a series of fossil dwarf shoots, leaves and a pollen cone belonging to the family Pinaceae. Fossils are charcoalified with preserved three-dimension structure and excellent cellular detail. The dwarf shoots are assigned to a new species Prepinus crossmanensis. These species differ in size, shape, presence of hypodermis, schlerenchyma and stomata at the cataphylls and number and shape of needle leaves. Among isolated leaves were found leaves assignable to a new species of Prepinus. P. raritanensis sp. nov. and Pinus quinquefolia Jeffrey. The Prepinus species disagree in size, shape, stomata and hypodermis; shape and number of layers of the mesophyll and transfusion tissue. The male cone, Amboystrobus cretacicum, has an axis at which the microsporophylls are spirally attached; on the abaxial side of each microsporophyll are found two ovoid microsporangia. The pollen grains are monosulcate and bisaccate (eusaccate), with an elliptical corpus; granulate exine sculpture, and honeycomb-like wall structure.


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Prepinus and Amboystrobus
Actual width in ( ) unless otherwise noted.

Top of Prepinus crossmanensis shoot
(4.9 mm)
Side view of shoot
(height= 4.5 mm)

Amboystrobus cretacium cone
(height= 2.5 mm)
Pollen sacs with pollen grains
(910 µm)
Pollen grain
(42 µm)

Prepinus raritanensis needle
(length= 1.9 mm )
(image= 283 µm)