22. EASTERN HEMLOCK
Tsuga canadensis (Linnaeus) Carriere
|Eastern hemlock is a valuable forest tree very widely distributed throughout the state, particularly common on northern exposures, shaded gorges, steep mountain slopes, and borders of deep swamps. The wood is light, not strong, coarse-grained, brittle, not durable, splinters easily, and is light brown in color. It is largely manufactured into construction lumber and is also in demand for mechanical pulp.|
|Bark - reddish to
grayish brown in color, with shallow, broad connecting ridges; inner bark bright cinnamon
red in color. The high tannin content of the bark is of commercial value in tanning
Twigs - slender, yellowish to grayish brown in color, rough when needles are shed.
Winter buds - very small, reddish brown in color, not resinous-coated.
Leaves - borne singly, twisting to appear 2-ranked with a third row pointing forward on top of the twig; with distinct short stalk, flat, 1/2 inch long, rounded or notched at the apex, dark green in color above, paler below with 2 white lines, persistent from 2 to 3 years.
Fruit - a cone, stalked, pendant, 3/4 inch long, ripening in a year, grayish brown in color when mature, falling during the winter following maturity. Cone scales - with rounded entire margins. Seeds - in pairs, winged, light brown in color, 1/16 inch long, ripening in September.
Distinguishing features - needles with tiny stalks; small cones.