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1. Ginkgo biloba L. GINKGO

HABITAT: Cultivated as a street tree.

RANGE: Extirpated native of southeastern Asia , now known only in cultivation.




1. TAXUS (Tourn.) L. YEW.


SYNONYMS: Taxus baccata L. subsp. canadensis (Marshall) Pilger; Taxus baccata L. var. minor Michaux; Taxus minor (Michaux) Britton; Taxus procumbens Loddiges.

HABITAT: Shaded ravine banks and borders of deep swamps, on gravelly or shaly, mostly neutral, soils in the humus of conifers; frequent. Apr. 20-May 10.

LOCALITIES: In nearly all the ravines of the basin. Some swamp stations are: s. of Caroline Depot; Michigan Hollow Swamp (D.!); Larch Meadow; Ellis Hollow Swamp (D.!); Bear Swamp (D.); McLean Woods; Beaver Brook.

RANGE: Newf. to Man., southw. to Va. and Iowa; rare or absent on the Coastal Plain.



1. Leaves except on leader shoots, clustered in bundles of 2 or more. goto 2.

1. Leaves solitary. goto 3.

2. Leaves in bundles of 2, 3, or 5, evergreen. goto 1. PINUS

2. Leaves 12-50 to a cluster, deciduous. goto 2. LARIX

3. Buds at least 2 1/2 times as long as wide, sharp-pointed, usually greater than 5 mm. long; cones with exserted, 3-pronged bracts. goto 6. PSEUDOTSUGA

3. Buds at most 2 times as long as wide, rounded at apex, usually 2-4 mm. long; cones with entire or erose bracts hidden between the scales. goto 4.

4. Leaves 4-angled; leaf scars raised on short pedicel-like woody projections. goto 3. PICEA

4. Leaves flattened; leaf scars flush to the twig. goto 5.

5. Leaves petiolate, 8-15 mm. long, of different lengths on the same twig; cones pendent, falling entire. goto 4. TSUGA

5. Leaves sessile, 15-25 mm. long, roughly the same length on the twig; cones erect, with persistent axis and deciduous scales. goto 5. ABIES

1. PINUS (Tourn.) L. PINE.

1. Leaves 5 to a bundle; cones 10-15 cm. long, subcylindrical; scales thin, without spiny tips. goto 1. Pinus strobus

1. Leaves 2 or 3 to a bundle; cones 3-9 cm. long, ovoid; scales woody, thickened at the apex. goto 2.

2. Leaves 3 to a bundle. goto 2. Pinus rigida

2. Leaves 2 to a bundle. goto 3.

3. Leaves less than 7.5 cm. long. goto 4.

3. Leaves greater than 7.5 cm. long. goto 5.

4. Leaves deep dark green, bark dark brown; cultivated shrubs. goto 6. Pinus mugo

4. Leaves gray-green to yellow-green; bark orange-red; introduced trees. goto 5. Pinus sylvestris

5. Leaves breaking or snapping when bent. goto 3. Pinus resinosa

5. Leaves merely folding when bent. goto 4. Pinus nigra

1. Pinus strobus L. WHITE PINE.

SYNONYM: Strobus strobus (L.) Small.

HABITAT: Hills, or even swamps, on sandy or gravelly noncalcareous soils; preferring more loamy and less acid soils than the next species; formerly abundant, still common. June.

LOCALITIES: "Once the principal forest tree over large areas in this vicinity" (D.). This is especially true on the Volusia and Lordstown soils south and east of Ithaca, where the stump fences still give evidence of the abundance of this species and serve also as an indicator of its previous distribution. The tract of first-growth trees mentioned by Dudley as "Signer's Woods" was lumbered about fifteen years ago. First-growth trees still exist on West Hill (Riley farm) and east of the Caroline Pinnacles.

RANGE: Newf. to Man., southw. to Pa. and e. Iowa, and along the mts. to Ga.; infrequent on the Coastal Plain.

2. Pinus rigida Mill. PITCH PINE.

HABITAT: Dry hills and ravine crests, in sandy or stony sterile acid soils; frequent.

LOCALITIES: Widely scattered about the crests of the ravines of the basin, on the high hills s. of Ithaca, along the lake cliffs, and on the sands n. of the lake; rare or absent in the McLean district.

RANGE: N. B. to s. w. Ont., southw. to Ga., Ala., Tenn., and Ohio; common in the pine barrens of e. N. E., L. I., and N. J.

3. Pinus resinosa Ait. RED PINE.

HABITAT: Habitat similar to the preceding, but preferring slightly heavier soils; infrequent. May 25-June.

LOCALITIES: "Abundant on the high ridge east of W. Danby" (D.!); "the largest groups are on the declivities between White Church and Brookton" (D.); Connecticut Hill; "high bank north of Lucifer Falls" (D.!); mouth of Coy Glen (D.); Six Mile Creek, n. bank below Wells Falls and on the promontory e. of the Sulphur Spring (D.!); n. bank of Buttermilk Glen (D.!); "east shore of Cayuga Lake, from McKinney's to Ludlowville" (D.!); "wanting on the west shore except at Taughannock and Trumansburg ravines" (D.); absent from the McLean district.

RANGE: Newf. to Man., southw. to Mass., Pa., and Wis.; rare or absent on the Coastal Plain.

4. Pinus nigra Turra. AUSTRIAN PINE.

HABITAT: European species cultivated as an ornamental, windscreens, road buffer.

5. Pinus sylvestris L. SCOTCH PINE, SCOTS PINE.

HABITAT: Introduced northern European species, naturalizing in old fields, hedgerows and roadsides.

6. Pinus mugo Turra. MUGO PINE.

HABITAT: European species popular in cultivation as an ornamental shrub or dwarf conifer.

2. LARIX (Tourn.) Adans. LARCH.

1. Leaves 15-28 mm. long; cones 12-20 mm. long; cone scales glabrous. goto 1. Larix laricina

1. Leaves 20-40 mm. long; cones 20-30 mm. long; cone scales puberulent. goto [Larix decidua]


SYNONYMS: Larix americana Michaux; Pinus laricina Du Roi; Larix alaskensis W. Wight; Larix laricina var. alaskensis (W. Wight) Raup

HABITAT: About bogs, on the acid peat moors but more abundant on marl moors; infrequent. May 1-15.

LOCALITIES: Fir Tree Swamp, Danby (D.!); Michigan Hollow Swamp (D.!); marly soil, Larch Meadow (D.!); Freeville (D.); in marl, Mud Creek, Freeville (D.!); Woodwardia Bog (D.!); Junius peat bogs (D.!); near the Junius marl ponds (D.!); Crusoe Prairie; Duck Lake.

RANGE: Lab. and Newf. to N. W. Terr., southw. to N. J., n. Pa., n. Ill., and cent. Minn.; rare or absent on the Coastal Plain.


SYNONYM: Larix europaea DC.

HABITAT: Frequently planted and occasionally establishing in wild places.

RANGE: Native of Eu.]


1. Leaves blunt, 5-15 mm. long; cones ovate, 2-3 cm. long. goto 1. Picea mariana

1. Leaves acute, 12-25 mm. long; cones cylindrical, 4-18 cm. long. goto 2.

2. Female cones mostly 10-18 cm. long; lateral twigs pendulous; leaves green. goto 3. [Picea abies]

2. Female cones 4-10 cm. long; lateral twigs horizontal; leaves blue, blue-green, or gray-green, pungent.

3. Female cones 4-5 cm. long, leaves 1-2 cm. long, emitting strong odor (disagreeable to some) when crushed, gray-green, mildly pungent. goto 2. [Picea glauca]

3. Female cones 6-10 cm. long, leaves 2-4 cm. long, lacking strong odor, blue-green to brilliant blue, very stiff and sharply pointed. goto 4. Picea pungens

1. Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP. BLACK SPRUCE.

SYNONYMS: Abies mariana Miller; Picea brevifolia Peck; Picea mariana var. brevifolia (Peck) Rehder; Picea nigra (Aiton) Link; Pinus nigra Aiton.

HABITAT: Peat bogs, in acid soil; rare. May.

LOCALITIES: Spruce Swamp, Enfield (D.!), now almost extinct; Woodwardia Bog (D.!); Junius peat bogs; Crusoe Prairie; Duck Lake.

RANGE: Lab. to N. W. Terr., southw. to N. J., Mich., and Minn., and along the mts. to N. C., rare or absent on the Coastal Plain.


SYNONYMS: Picea excelsa Link.; Pinus abies L.

HABITAT: Found occasionally in wild places; common in cultivation.

RANGE: Native of Eu.]

2. Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. WHITE SPRUCE.

SYNONYMS: Pinus glauca Moench; Abies canadensis Miller; Picea alba (Aiton) Link; Picea alba var. albertiana (S. Brown) Beissner; Picea albertiana S. Brown; Picea canadensis (Miller) BSP.; Picea canadensis var. glauca (Moench) Sudworth; Picea glauca var. albertiana (S. Brown) Sargent; Picea glauca var. densata Bailey; Picea glauca var. porsildii Raup; Pinus alba Aiton.

HABITAT: Escaping cultivation or perhaps also from wild populations outside the area and becoming established in old fields, especially in moist or rocky soils. Much cultivated in commercial Christmas tree plantations. Native farther north and west.]


HABITAT: Commonly cultivated as an ornamental, occasionally planted for use as Christmas trees.

4. TSUGA (Endl.) Carr. HEMLOCK.

1. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. EASTERN HEMLOCK.

SYNONYM: Pinus canadensis L.

HABITAT: Shaded slopes, especially in ravines and on the higher hills but also in swamps, in gravelly or shaly soils with little reference to lime content; common. June.

LOCALITIES: Formerly an important forest tree in this region, but now mostly lumbered; distribution general.

RANGE: N. S. and N. B. to Minn., southw. to Del., Mich., and Wis., and in the mts. to Ga. and Ala.; rarely found on the Coastal Plain.

5. ABIES (Tourn.) Hill. FIR.

1. Cone bracts hidden; native. goto 1. Abies balsamea

1. Cone bracts protuding; cultivated. goto 2. Abies fraseri

1. Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. BALSAM FIR.

SYNONYM: Pinus balsamea L.

HABITAT: Boggy places, in acid or sometimes apparently calcareous soils; scarce. May.

LOCALITIES: Michigan Hollow Swamp; Fir Tree Swamp, Danby (D.!); Key Hill swamp; swamp between Slaterville and Dryden Lake; Fir Tree Swamp, Freeville, near the railroad (D.!); near the mouth of Mud Creek, Freeville, formerly (D.); upper Beaver Brook.

RANGE: Newf. and Lab. to Hudson Bay and Alberta, southw. to Mass. and Iowa, and along the mts. to Va.; apparently infrequent on the Coastal Plain.

2. Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. FRASER FIR.

SYNONYM: Pinus fraseri Pursh

HABITAT: Native of the southern Appalachians that is cultivated as a premium Christmas Tree.


1. Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. DOUGLAS-FIR, DOUG-FIR.

SYNONYMS: Abies menziesii Mirb.; Abies douglasii Lindl.; Abies mucronata Raf.; Abies taxifolia Poir., not Desf.; Picea douglasii Link; Pinus douglasii (Lindl.) Link; Pinus taxifolia Lambert, not Salisbury; Pseudotsuga douglasii (Lindl.) Carriere; Pseudotsuga lindleyana Carriere; Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lambert) Britt.; Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) Sudw.

HABITAT: Cultivated as an ornamental and Christmas Tree, occasionally escaping.

RANGE: Native of the Rocky Mountains and northwestern North America.



1. Female cones fleshy, berry-like, globose, green becoming blue or blue-black, the scales never separating at maturity; ultimate branchlets terete; adult scale-like leaves keeled but not compressed. goto 1. JUNIPERUS

1. Female cones woody, globose, conical or oblong, green becoming brown or gray, the scales separating at maturity, peltate or imbricate; ultimate branchlets flattened; adult scale-like leaves compressed bilaterally or facially. goto 2.

2. Female cones oblong or conical, the scales oblong and imbricate; margins of the lateral leaves not convenient beyond the apex of the overlapping facial leaf. goto 2. THUJA

2. Female cones globose, the scales peltate; margins of the lateral leaves connivent beyond the apex of the overlapping facial leaf. goto 3. CHAMAECYPARIS


1. Leaves whorled, subulate-acicular, sharp-pointed, 8-14 mm. long; plants low, decumbent shrubs; berry-like female cone axillary. goto 1. Juniperus communis var. depressa

1. Leaves opposite, scale-like, 0.5-1.5 mm. long, acute (in juvenile plants acicular); small to large trees; berry-like female cone terminal. goto 2. Juniperus virginiana

1. Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. COMMON JUNIPER.

SYNONYMS: Juniperus communis subsp. depressa (Pursh) Raf.; Juniperus canadensis Burgsdorf; Juniperus communis var. canadensis (Burgsdorf) Louden.

HABITAT: Dry sterile stony hillsides, in light noncalcareous soils; rare. May 1-15.

LOCALITIES: "Three stations are known: In a pasture west of Eagle Hill; South Hill, north of S. S. 420; W. Danby, near the western base of Thacher's Pinnacle, (F. V. Coville.)" (D.). Two other stations have since been found: n. slope of South Hill, farther toward Caroline (A. H. Wright); and crest of ravine n. of Esty Glen.

RANGE: N. S. to Conn. and N. Y., along the Great Lakes, and northwestw., including the northern Coastal Plain.

2. Juniperus virginiana L. EASTERN REDCEDAR.

SYNONYMS: Juniperus sabina Hooker; Juniperus caroliniana Michaux; Sabina virginiana (L.) Antoine

HABITAT: Dry hillsides and rocky banks, in gravelly or sandy noncalcareous soils; locally common. Apr. 15-30.

LOCALITIES: About most of the ravines of the basin; abundant s. of Buttermilk Glen; on the slopes of Cayuga Lake, in the proper soils; rare or absent in the McLean district and in the hills s. of Ithaca.

RANGE: N. S. to w. Ont. and S. Dak., southw. to Fla. and Tex., including the Coastal Plain.


1. Thuja occidentalis L. ARBOR VITAE. WHITE CEDAR.

HABITAT: Boggy, more or less calcareous, soils; scarce. Apr. 25-May 20.

LOCALITIES: "A half mile northwest of Black Lake, in a swamp north of Lay's Iron Spring, - a large number" (D.); on moor of Junius marl ponds (D.!); occasional in the towns of Conquest and Montezuma; bog s. w. of Westbury, in the town of Butler; Crusoe Lake. In the Cayuga Lake Basin, confined entirely to the Ontario plain.

RANGE: E. Que. to Man., southw. to Pa., Tenn., Ill., and Minn., and in the mts. to N. C.; apparently absent on the Coastal Plain.


1. Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Lindl. HINOKI-CYPRESS.

RANGE: Native of Japan, cultivated as an ornamental.